From the first exploratory drilling in 1974 to reaching full 60MW capacity in 1999, the Krafla geothermal power plant has had an interesting story.
For a while it was uncertain whether Krafla would ever actually enter operation when, early on, large-scale volcanic eruptions occurred only two kilometers away from the station, posing a serious threat to its existence. Work continued, however, and phase one of the power station went on line early in 1977.
Krafla Geothermal Power Station Timeline:
1974 - The first trial boreholes are drilled
1975 - Beginning of seismic and volcanic impacts threaten continued development of the plant
1975 - Sinking production wells and construction of power plant despite seismic activity
1977 - Power Plant begins operation
1978 - Plant begins power production
1984 - Significant decline in seismic and volcanic impacts
1996 - Installed 2nd steam turbine and beginning of additional drilling
1999 - Producing 60MW (planned capacity)
In total, 33 boreholes were drilled, including 17 high pressure production wells and 5 low-pressure production wells. The plant uses 110kg/second of 7.7 bar saturated high-pressure steam and 36 kg/sec of 2.2 bar saturated low-pressure steam and has been in operation at 60MW since 1999.
Mannvit's involvement in the Krafla geothermal power plant started in 1994 and lasted until 2002 and revolved mainly around the development of the second phase of the project.
- Feasibility report
- Site lay-out planning
- Conceptual design
- Detailed mechanical design
- Environmental impact study and report
- Modeling of groundwater flow and transportation of contaminants
- Project management
- Overall plant design
- Detailed design of HVAC systems
- Bid preparation and tender evaluation
- Site supervision
Olkaria II Power Station is currently Africa’ s largest Geothermal Power Station. It is currently generating 70 MWe and is the second geothermal plant that is operated by KenGen. The power plant was commissioned in November 2003.
Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant is located in the North Eastern Sector of the greater Olkaria geothermal field. Wells were drilled between 1986 and 1993 but construction of the power plant was delayed until the year 2000 when funds became available.
The project was co-financed by the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, KfW of Germany and the Kenyan Government. Designed and constructed with an advantage of newer technology, this state-of-the-art plant is highly efficient in steam utilization.
Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant operates on a single flash plant cycle with a steam consumption of 7.5 tonnes per hour per megawatt generated. The turbines are single flow six-stage condensing with direct contact spray jet condenser. The Power generated is transmitted to the national grid via 220 kV double circuit line to Nairobi. Olkaria II power station is also connected to Olkaria I Power Station by a 132 kV line.
The Svartsengi Geothermal Power Plant is a geothermal power station located in Keflavik, Iceland, near the Keflavík International Airport at the Reykjanes Peninsula. As of December 2007, it produces 76.5 MW of energy, and about 475 litres/second of 90 °C (194 °F) hot water (ca. 80 MW). Surplus mineral rich water from the plant fills up the Blue Lagoon, a tourist bathing resort.
|Svartsengi Power Station|
The Blue Lagoon with the power station in the background.
|Location||Keflavik, Iceland |
|Installed capacity||76.5 MW|
The Kawerau Geothermal Power Plant is a 100-megawatt geothermal power plant located just outside the town of Kawerau in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. The power station is situated within the Kawerau geothermal field, which is part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Completed in July 2008 by Mighty River Power at a cost NZ$300 million, the plant's capacity proved greater than expected. The station is the largest single generator geothermal plant in New Zealand.
The Kawerau Geothermal Power Plant boosted the country's geothermal capacity by 25 percent and significantly increased local generation capacity in the Eastern Bay of Plenty. The plant meets approximately one third of residential and industrial demand in the region and provides cost certainty to local industry including Norske Skog Tasman.
The Kawerau Geothermal Power Plant uses a single Fuji turbine and steam from geothermal bores. The two phase fluid is flashed/separated twice to produce high and low pressure steam to feed the turbine.
The Kawerau Geothermal Power Plant field also supplies process steam to the Kawerau pulp and paper mill. This is used for process and power generation. Two small binary power plants use waste hot geothermal water for power generation.
A binary plant is also located west of the main power station. This station uses two phase fluid from one production well, KA24.
|Kawerau Power Station|
|Location||Bay of Plenty|
|Owner||Mighty River Power|
|Maximum capacity||100 MW|
The Centennial Drive Binary Geothermal Power Plant is a 23 MW binary cycle geothermal power station situated near Taupo, New Zealand. The power station is operated by Contact Energy.
In July 2008, Contact Energy announced that the contract for supply and construction of the binary cycle equipment was awarded to Ormat Technologies.
The Centennial Drive Binary Geothermal Power Plant is powered with steam and fluid from the Tauhara steamfield, and all used geothermal fluid is reinjected back into the edge of the steamfield.The Tauhara One plant was opened in May 2010, three weeks ahead of schedule.
|Centennial Drive Binary|
|Location||Centennial Drive, opposite Rakaunui Road, Taupo, New Zealand|
|Maximum capacity||23 MW|